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A Highlight on Avian Toxoplasmosis: One Health Disease with a Special Reference to the Current Egyptian Situation

(2021) A Highlight on Avian Toxoplasmosis: One Health Disease with a Special Reference to the Current Egyptian Situation. World's Veterinary Journal. pp. 510-520. ISSN 23224568 (ISSN)

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This review article was developed to the infection of avian species with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), diagnosis, pet bird and human infection, and control methods with a special reference to the current status of infection among the Egyptian poultry farms and population. Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by a unicellular, protozoan parasite T. gondii. Different domesticated and wild animals, as well as birds can harbor T. gondii and may be a potential source of infection to humans. Avian species could be infected with T. gondii through the ingestion of contaminated food, soil, and water with oocysts shed in the excreta of infected animals, especially cats. Poor sanitation and hygienic conditions increase the risk of infection. Consumption of food or water, as well as undercooked poultry meat or meat products containing the oocysts of the parasite, are the main sources of human infection with T. gondi. Diagnosis of T. gondii in the infected host depends on the serological detection of specific antibodies and molecular detection of the parasite. Microscopic demonstration of the oocysts and other developmental stages of the parasite in the intestine, liver, brain, and skeletal muscles tissues is another means for rapid diagnosis. Generally, a high prevalence of the disease is also reported in pet birds. Toxoplasmosis in humans is associated with abortion, congenital disorders, stillbirth, and other complications, especially in immunocompromised patients. Application of hygienic measures, as well as public awareness, are essential for the prevention and control of toxoplasmosis. In different Egyptian governorates, a high prevalence of T. gondii has been detected in animals, birds, and humans. High incidence of infection was recorded due to the contact with Toxoplasma oocysts shed mainly from infected cats or other carriers. Egyptian chicken and turkey flocks and backyard birds revealed the presence of different developmental stages of the parasite and even its antibodies. In addition, human populations showed signs of toxoplasmosis with severe complications.

Item Type: Article
Keywords: Bird, Egypt, Human, Toxoplasma gondii, Zoonosis
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
S Agriculture > SF Animal culture
Divisions: World's Veterinary Journal (WVJ)
Page Range: pp. 510-520
Journal or Publication Title: World's Veterinary Journal
Journal Index: Scopus
Volume: 11
Number: 3
Publisher: Scienceline Publication, Ltd
Identification Number:
ISSN: 23224568 (ISSN)
Depositing User: Dr. Alireza Sadeghi

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